Vacuum technology is indispensable to the development of vacuum acquisition equipment. Today, EVP vacuum pump manufacturers will talk with you about some important nodes in the development of vacuum technology.
Important Participants and Promoters in the Development of Vacuum Technology
The earliest acquisition and application of vacuum can be traced back to the 6th century BC. At that time, the blast equipment equipped with the ironmaking furnace was the application of negative pressure suction and pressurized exhaust, the principle is similar to the reciprocating vacuum pump now. More typical is the cupping in traditional Chinese medicine, which uses the principles of air thermal expansion and condensation, steam condensation to form a vacuum in the tank.
In the 17th century, history began to have accurate records of vacuum acquisition. In 1643, the Italian Torricelli measured a standard atmospheric pressure of about 760 mm mercury column or 10.3 m water column through his experiments. Then Pascal, his student, moved Torry’s experiment to the mountains and proved that atmospheric pressure was related to altitude.
In 1654, German Glick invented the piston vacuum pump and carried out the world-famous Madelberg hemispheric experiment, which proved the enormous power of atmospheric pressure.
In 1662, Boyle, an Englishman, discovered that the pressure of a quantitative gas in an airtight container is inversely proportional to its volume at constant temperature. This is Boyle’s law and the first “law” discovered in human history.
By the 18th century, Bernoulli, a Swiss, put forward the theory of gas molecule motion in 1738, which laid the initial theoretical foundation of vacuum technology.
In the more than 200 years since Edison invented the carbon filament light bulb in 1879, the development of vacuum technology was accompanied by the birth of electronics. Vacuum technology opens the way for the development of electronic technology. At the beginning of the 20th century, the development of electronic technology promoted the development of vacuum technology.
In 1905, Gedder invented the mechanical pump; in 1906, Pirani invented the thermal resistance vacuum meter; in 1913 and 1915, Gedder invented the molecular pump and diffusion pump; in 1916, Beckley invented the thermal cathode ionometer. Vacuum technology began to develop from low vacuum to high vacuum. In particular, Hickman invented the fractional oil diffusion pump in 1936 and Penning invented the cold cathode Ionometer in 1937, which improved the high vacuum technology in both acquisition and measurement.
Since 1940, vacuum technology has been widely used in atomic energy and expanded in vacuum metallurgy, vacuum coating, vacuum freezing and drying. By 1950, the vacuum range had increased to 10-4-10-5 Pa. The B-A gauge was invented by Bead and Albert in the same year, which created conditions for measuring ultra-high vacuum. In 1953, the emergence of getter ion pump began to enable people to obtain clean ultra-high vacuum.
From 1950s to 1970s, vacuum technology was integrated into many advanced science and technology and developed rapidly. High-energy accelerators, plasma fusion devices, ultra-large scale integrated circuits in microelectronics, especially aerospace technology, promote the leap of vacuum technology. Vacuum has entered the era of “super clean”. The pressure range has developed from 10-4-10-5 Pa to 10-12-10-13 Pa. The pumping speed of cryopump has reached 10 million L/S. In the 1980s, with the development of semiconductor industry, chemical industry and film industry, the development of dry vacuum pumps was promoted, and new vacuum acquisition equipment such as screw vacuum pumps emerged.
Nowadays, with the development of new applications and continuous development, vacuum technology has become the condition and means of innovation in many disciplines. The cross-penetration of various technologies enriches the connotation of vacuum technology and makes vacuum technology approach “ideal vacuum” step by step.
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